Luna-tique



Când eram mică, îmi imaginam că în lună trăieşte un omuleţ care bea doar ciocolată cu lapte. Noaptea, el arunca o scară lungă până la noi. Urcând, ajungeam la casa lui şi puteam chiar gusta din lună, care avea gust de pepene roşu.

Mai jos am adunat lucruri interesante despre astrul meu preferat, poate  unul dintre cele mai misterioase şi ciudate lucruri din univers :)





10 lucruri uimitoare despre Lună


1. Cum s-a format Luna 


Aceasta s-ar fi format ca urmare a unei coliziuni cunoscute sub denumirea de "Impactul gigantic". Un corp de mărimea planetei Marte a lovit Pământul acum 4,6 miliarde de ani, la scurt timp după apariţia Soarelui şi a sistemului solar. "Norul" de material rezultat în urma impactului a ajuns pe orbita din jurul Pămâtului, după care s-a racit si s-a condensat, determinând apariţia mai multor corpuri mici, solide, care mai apoi s-au lipit, formând Luna.

2. Luna răsare mai târziu


În fiecare zi, dar nu în acelaşi timp, Luna răsare la est si apune la vest, ca şi Soarele, iar Pământul se roteşte în jurul axei sale spre est. Luna face însă şi o călătorie orbitală în jurul Pământului o dată la fiecare 29,5 zile, această mişcare graduală fiind tot spre est. De aceea, Luna răsare mai târziu în fiecare zi, cu aproximativ 50 de minute în medie.

De asemenea, tot aceasta este explicaţia  pentru care Luna uneori răsare seara şi se poate vedea noaptea, în timp ce în alte dăţi apare deasupra noastră doar ziua sau în cea mai mare parte din zi.

3. Nu există o parte întunecată a Lunii

Cel mai probabil ai auzit că Luna are o parte întunecată, însă afirmaţia este incorectă deoarece asa ceva nu există. Există însă o parte îndepărtată, pe care nu o putem vedea de pe Pământ; mai exact, lumina solară cade pe toată suprafaţa ei, dar oamenii văd lumina doar pe partea care se vede de pe Pământ.

4. Gravitaţia este mult mai mică

Luna are aproximativ 27% din mărimea Pământului şi este mult mai puţin masivă, iar gravitaţia reprezintă cam o şesime din cea de pe Pământ. Dacă scapi din mână o piatră pe Lună aceasta cade mai încet. Daca ai 68 de kilograme, pe Lună ar fi ca şi cum ai avea aproximativ 12 kilograme.

5. Luni pline mai mici şi mai mari

Orbita Lunii în jurul Pământului este ovală, nu în formă de cerc, astfel că distanţa dintre centrul Pămâtului şi centrul Lunii variază. La perigeu - atunci când Luna se află în cel mai apropiat punct faţă de Pământ, distanţa este de 363.300 de kilometri, iar la apogeu - în cel mai îndepărtat punct - , distanţa este de 405.500 de kilometri.

Atunci când o lună plină apare în timp ce astrul este la apogeu, discul pe care noi îl vedem poate fi cu 14% mai mare şi cu 30% mai strălucitor decât în alte dăţi în care este tot în faza de lună plină

6. O istorie violentă

Craterele de pe Lună dezvăluie faptul că aceasta a avut parte de evenimente violente acum aproximativ 4 miliarde de ani. Şi, deoarece acolo nu există mai deloc atmosferă, iar în interiorul ei este foarte puţină activitate, există foarte multe urme ale unor impacturi, spre deosebire de Pământ, care ar fi avut parte de aceeaşi violenţă în acel timp, dar pe care nu s-au mai păstrat atât de vizibil urmele.

7. Luna nu este rotundă

Multe persoane cred că aceasta este sferică, însă Luna are forma unui ou. Iar centrul masei ei nu este în punctul care ar fi din punct de vedere geometric centrul ei, ci la aproximativ 2 kilometri depărtare de acesta.

8. Există cutremure pe Lună

Astronauţii care au ajuns pe Lună au descoperit că şi pe aceasta există seisme, care îşi au originea la câţiva kilometri în interiorul ei şi despre care se crede că sunt cauzate de forţa gravitaţională a Pământului. Uneori apar chiar mici crăpături la suprafaţă, fiind eliberate şi gaze.


9. Mareele sunt determinate de Lună

Mareele de pe Pământ, adică fluxurile şi refluxurile, sunt determinate în special de Lună, de gravitaţia acesteia care influenţează nivelul mării, şi prea puţin de Soare.


10. Luna se depărtează de Pământ tot mai mult

În fiecare an, Luna "fură" o parte din energia de rotaţie a Pământului şi o foloseşte pentru a se ridica cu aproximativ 4 centimetri pe orbită. Potrivit cercetătorilor, atunci când s-a format, Luna se afla la o distanţă de 22.530 de kilometri de Pământ, iar acum se află la aproximativ 400.000 de kilometri depărtare.



                                         
                                           Superstiţii şi credinţe 


Credinţele străvechi spun că Luna Nouă e aducătoare de belşug şi de sănătate. Multe din ele se mai păstrează şi astăzi. Care-i secretul trăiniciei lor?

 Se spune că superstiţiile au efect doar asupra celor care cred în ele. Pentru alţii, ele nu sunt decât o asociere, o simplă întâmplare…

Psihologii afirmă că superstiţiile sunt un sistem de credinţe cu ajutorul cărora oamenii decriptează viitorul.

Biblia susţine că Soarele, Luna şi stelele sunt corpuri cereşti create de Dumnezeu cu un scop bine definit - acela de a fi luminători ai Pământului. (vezi Geneza 1, 14- 19).

Ce credeau anticii

Luna, numită şi Stăpâna nopţii, a fost un element care a fascinat de-a lungul vremurilor aproape toate civilizaţiile Globului.
 În Antichitate, sumerienii aduceau ofrande astrului nocturn, considerându-l zeu (Nanna-Suen).
 Babilonienii spuneau că Luna are suflet şi că se plimbă pe cer într-o barcă, stelele fiind vâslaşii, iar egiptenii ridicau Luna la rang de zeiţă a fecundităţii (Bastet).

Luna, ca o fecioară frumoasă

În mitologia românească, Luna a fost creată de Dumnezeu la şapte ani după Soare.
 Era o fecioară foarte frumoasă, în straie din pânză strălucitoare, călătorind într-un car de argint, tras de şapte cai albi.
 Ea a răpit însă inima propriului frate, incest care a dus la despărţirea lor.
 Legendele mai spun că petele care se văd pe suprafaţa Lunii sunt făcute de Creator cu funingine, cu scopul de a o feri de iubirea Soarelui.
 Aducătoare de bani şi de sănătate

Luna în creştere e aducătoare de belşug, spun credinţele populare româneşti.

Când este Lună Plină, oamenii de la ţară ţin în mână o monedă, privesc spre cer, îşi fac cruce şi se roagă pentru prosperitate.
 Tot în această perioadă se tunde părul, se seamănă şi se ticluiesc farmecele de dragoste.
 Fetele nemăritate de la ţară spun descântece către „Craiul Nou” sau „sfânta lună” cu scopul de a-şi întâlni ursitul mai repede.

Ce să faci de Lună Nouă

Bunicii noştri îşi amintesc că „la Crai Nou” nu e bine să pleci din casă după miezul nopţii, pentru că atunci ies strigoii din cimitire.
 Tot ei spun că de Lună Nouă e bine să te muţi, să faci nuntă, iar când descreşte, să tai lemne sau să văruieşti casa.
 Medicii de demult mai spun că, de Lună Nouă, sângele oamenilor devine mai fluid.

Ce spun astrologii

E posibil ca perigeiul lunar (perioadă în care Luna se apropie de Pământ) să provoace stări de nervozitate şi insomnii, spun astrologii.
 În perioada aceasta, emotivitatea este mai greu de controlat şi persoanele sensibile pot trece cu uşurinţă la depresie.
 Tot ei mai cred că în această perioadă te vindeci mai greu. De aceea, nu sunt indicate intervenţiile chirurgicale.
 Luna Plină şi perigeul „se aliniază” în medie la un an, o lună şi 18 zile, spun astrologii.
 Ei mai spun că fazele lunii te ajută să începi sau să-ţi duci la bun sfârşit planurile, proiectele, sarcinile de serviciu. Iată ce te sfătuiesc ei să ai în vedere:
 Lună în descreştere: este o perioadă foarte bună pentru dezintoxicarea organismului.
 Este  recomandată pentru cure de slăbire, deoarece în această perioadă ai rezultatele cele mai bune.
 Lună Nouă: tot ce începe în această fază a lunii evoluează favorabil, se dezvoltă, creşte.
 Este favorabilă şi în plan sentimental. Postul ţinut în Lună Nouă are efecte mai bune decat o cură de slăbire.
 Lună în creştere: este o fază prielnică pentru negocieri, tranzacţii, afaceri. Ce începe atunci va „face pui”.

Recomandată pentru a începe o relaţie, un drum, o afacere. Nu se fac intervenţii chirurgicale, deoarece vindecarea este grea şi înceată.
 Lună Plină: perioadă favorabilă deciziilor importante, declaraţiilor de dragoste, lămuririlor pe toate planurile.
 Profund nefavorabilă în planul financiar şi  benefică pentru culegerea plantelor de leac.





FULL MOON NAMES AND MEANINGS:




Full Moon names date back to Native Americans, of what is now the northern and eastern United States. The tribes kept track of the seasons by giving distinctive names to each recurring full Moon. Their names were applied to the entire month in which each occurred. There was some variation in the Moon names, but in general, the same ones were current throughout the Algonquin tribes from New England to Lake Superior. European settlers followed that custom and created some of their own names. Since the lunar month is only 29 days long on the average, the full Moon dates shift from year to year. Here is the Farmers Almanac’s list of the full Moon names.

• Full Wolf Moon – January Amid the cold and deep snows of midwinter, the wolf packs howled hungrily outside Indian villages. Thus, the name for January’s full Moon. Sometimes it was also referred to as the Old Moon, or the Moon After Yule. Some called it the Full Snow Moon, but most tribes applied that name to the next Moon.

• Full Snow Moon – February Since the heaviest snow usually falls during this month, native tribes of the north and east most often called February’s full Moon the Full Snow Moon. Some tribes also referred to this Moon as the Full Hunger Moon, since harsh weather conditions in their areas made hunting very difficult.

• Full Worm Moon – March As the temperature begins to warm and the ground begins to thaw, earthworm casts appear, heralding the return of the robins. The more northern tribes knew this Moon as the Full Crow Moon, when the cawing of crows signaled the end of winter; or the Full Crust Moon, because the snow cover becomes crusted from thawing by day and freezing at night. The Full Sap Moon, marking the time of tapping maple trees, is another variation. To the settlers, it was also known as the Lenten Moon, and was considered to be the last full Moon of winter.

• Full Pink Moon – April This name came from the herb moss pink, or wild ground phlox, which is one of the earliest widespread flowers of the spring. Other names for this month’s celestial body include the Full Sprouting Grass Moon, the Egg Moon, and among coastal tribes the Full Fish Moon, because this was the time that the shad swam upstream to spawn.

• Full Flower Moon – May In most areas, flowers are abundant everywhere during this time. Thus, the name of this Moon. Other names include the Full Corn Planting Moon, or the Milk Moon.

• Full Strawberry Moon – June This name was universal to every Algonquin tribe. However, in Europe they called it the Rose Moon. Also because the relatively short season for harvesting strawberries comes each year during the month of June . . . so the full Moon that occurs during that month was christened for the strawberry!

• The Full Buck Moon – July July is normally the month when the new antlers of buck deer push out of their foreheads in coatings of velvety fur. It was also often called the Full Thunder Moon, for the reason that thunderstorms are most frequent during this time. Another name for this month’s Moon was the Full Hay Moon.

• Full Sturgeon Moon – August The fishing tribes are given credit for the naming of this Moon, since sturgeon, a large fish of the Great Lakes and other major bodies of water, were most readily caught during this month. A few tribes knew it as the Full Red Moon because, as the Moon rises, it appears reddish through any sultry haze. It was also called the Green Corn Moon or Grain Moon.

Full Corn Moon or Full Harvest Moon – September This full moon’s name is attributed to Native Americans because it marked when corn was supposed to be harvested. Most often, the September full moon is actually the Harvest Moon, which is the full Moon that occurs closest to the autumn equinox. In two years out of three, the Harvest Moon comes in September, but in some years it occurs in October. At the peak of harvest, farmers can work late into the night by the light of this Moon. Usually the full Moon rises an average of 50 minutes later each night, but for the few nights around the Harvest Moon, the Moon seems to rise at nearly the same time each night: just 25 to 30 minutes later across the U.S., and only 10 to 20 minutes later for much of Canada and Europe. Corn, pumpkins, squash, beans, and wild rice the chief Indian staples are now ready for gathering.

Full Hunter’s Moon or Full Harvest Moon – October This full Moon is often referred to as the Full Hunter’s Moon, Blood Moon, or Sanguine Moon. Many moons ago, Native Americans named this bright moon for obvious reasons. The leaves are falling from trees, the deer are fattened, and it’s time to begin storing up meat for the long winter ahead. Because the fields were traditionally reaped in late September or early October, hunters could easily see fox and other animals that come out to glean from the fallen grains. Probably because of the threat of winter looming close, the Hunter’s Moon is generally accorded with special honor, historically serving as an important feast day in both Western Europe and among many Native American tribes.

• Full Beaver Moon – November This was the time to set beaver traps before the swamps froze, to ensure a supply of warm winter furs. Another interpretation suggests that the name Full Beaver Moon comes from the fact that the beavers are now actively preparing for winter. It is sometimes also referred to as the Frosty Moon.

• The Full Cold Moon; or the Full Long Nights Moon – December During this month the winter cold fastens its grip, and nights are at their longest and darkest. It is also sometimes called the Moon before Yule. The term Long Night Moon is a doubly appropriate name because the midwinter night is indeed long, and because the Moon is above the horizon for a long time. The midwinter full Moon has a high trajectory across the sky because it is opposite a low Sun.







10 Interesting Myths and Legends About The Moon



The moon is a powerful force of nature. Just step outside in the middle of the night when the sky is clear and the moon is full and look it for a moment. You won’t be able to deny that it feels magical and intense and amazing. And people over time haven’t been able to deny that either. In fact, the moon has been a central part of many myths and legends across different cultures precisely because of how powerful this part of the sky is. Take a look at the following ten moon myths and legends to get a better sense of how people see its beauty and wonder.

1. Chang'e. There is a very famous Chinese myth about this woman who is said to live on the moon. There are different variations of the myth but the basic story is that she and her husband were once immortal beings who were made mortal because of their bad behavior. They then attempted to achieve immortality again through the use of a pill but Chang'e got greedy and took too much of the pill and ended up floating up to the moon where she remained stuck over time. She is the subject of much Chinese poetry and is one of the central reasons for celebration each Autumn during the Chiense Moon Festival.

2.  Moon Rabbit. This is an interesting myth because it crosses across several different cultures. The moon rabbit or jade rabbit is said to be one of the companions that Chang'e eventually was allowed to have with her one the moon. However, it is also a symbol that shows up in myths about the moon in Korea and in Japan.

3. Selene / Luna. These are the names of the Moon Goddess in Greek and Roman mythology respectively. In the myths associated with these goddesses, the goddess is paired with the god of the sun. He travels throughout the day and she takes over the journey at night. She is typically considered to be a passionate goddess who takes many lovers and who represents the desire associated with the moon.

4. Tecciztecatl. Not all of the dieties associated with the moon are goddesses. This is an example of a male god which is associated with the moon. What is interesting about the myths surrounding him are how many of the samy symbols from different moon myths are found in the stories about him. Although he was an Aztec god, there are associations with the Asian cultures (he was a rabbit, for example, associating him with the aforementioned Moon Rabbit) and even associations with modern day moon myths like the story of the “man on the moon”.

5. Anningan. The Inuit people of northern regions like Alaska and Greenland have a rather horrifying myth about the moon. They believe that Anningan, the Moon god, raped his sister, the sun Goddess. Worse, they believe that he is still trying to chase her down to possess her. That’s why he follows her in the sky every day. The waxing and waning of the moon is explained as Anningan chasing her until he is starving and then disappearing for a bit to hunt for food to have the energy to come back to chase her again.

6. Mawu. A much happier couple-based story about the moon is this myth from Africa which says that Mawu is a moon good who is forever linked in unity with the sun goddess Liza. It is believed that lunar and solar eclipses are related to the lovemaking times of the celestial couple. This myth is clearly about the power of the moon, the sun, the sky and love and desire.

7. Soma. This is a Hindu god that is associated with the moon. It’s interesting because of the fact that there are several additional symbols that we see here that are commonly associated with the moon. In Hindu art, Soma is sometimes an embryo and sometimes a bull. Fertility is frequently associated with the moon. The bull is also a symbol that has shown up as related to the moon across cultures. The main thing about Soma though is its link with the moon as an elixir. Soma is the name of a drink said to be consumed by the Gods. Interestingly, the moon rabbit who lives on the moon with Chang’e in the Chinese myth is also an elixir-making symbol.

8. Rona. This is a story that comes from the Maori tribe in New Zealand. The story is about a young woman named Rona who displeased the moon so the moon seized her and took her away. In the myth, she grabs on to a tree and drags it with her to the moon. It is believed by some that the tree is said to represent fertility, further linking the moon with this symbol.

9. Mayan Moon Goddesses. The Mayan people have several stories about different moon goddesses. One goddess frequently associated with the moon is Ixchel who is associated with the moon because she is a fertility goddess. However, it is believed that she may actually be the “grandmother of the moon” and represent aging and the drying up of fertility in old age so she is most commonly linked with the waxing of the moon and not the moon at all times.

10. Werewolves. One of the creatures that we often see depicted in movie myths and legends is the werewolf. This creature is, of course, affiliated with the full moon. Typically it is believed that these are creatures that have human form but that morph into wolf-like (typically violent) creatures when the full moon is in the sky. There are many different variations on this because of all of the books and movies that have been made about werewolves.

Those are just ten examples of some of the powerful stories that people across time and across the world associate with the moon. Using many different forms of symbolism, the moon itself has become a symbol for love, desire, change, passion, fertility, and violence.










THE MOON FESTIVAL



The Moon Festival falls on the 15th of the eighth month every year, of the Chinese lunar calendar.

It is said that on this very special day the moon would appear fullest, and it would shine the brightest. All the maidens of China, both young and old, would pray to the moon goddess to deliver to them the men of their dreams. The maidens would offer moon cakes, cookies, and fruits, and they would also burn incense and candles as a gesture of worshipping the moon goddess, Chang O.

In the Chinese astrology, the moon represents the female, and the sun represents the male. Both the Moon and the Sun represents Yin and Yen. Many believe that the moon goddess, Chang O, possess special power to enrich the lives of lovers on earth. The following is a story that was told to me by my grandfather when I was a little girl…

In a time long long ago, young lady Chang O lived with her father, the Jade Emperor, in heaven where all the good people and the fairies lived. They were all very happy until one day Chang O had accidentally broken a valuable porcelain jar. The Jade Emperor was angry at Chang O’s carelessness and punished her. He sent her down to earth to where the ordinary people lived, and he made a rule that Chang O could only come back to live in heaven if she had contributed some valuable services on earth.

When Chang O came to earth, she was sent to a poor farmer to be one of his family members. As she grew older she became a very beautiful young lady. A skillful hunter, Hou Yi, an expert archer from another village heard about Chang O’s beauty and came to look for her, and soon they became friends.

Life on earth in the village was peaceful, until one day, when the villagers woke up and were surprised to find 10 suns in the sky. The earth became a very warm place. Being the skillful archer he was, Hou Yi stepped forward to save the earth. He skillfully shot down 9 suns, and left one in the sky. He had become the instant hero who had saved the earth. The King had awarded him a respectable rank inside the palace. Shortly afterwards, Hou Yi had become the King’s successor and became the King. He married Chang O.

However, Hou Yi was greedy and immortal. He thought about how good it would be if he could live and enjoy his life forever. He commanded his followers to create a form of medicine that could prolong his life. One day, one of the followers came forward with a pill. He told Hou Yi to hold onto the pill, and warned him not take it until he was told to do so. Hou Yi was very happy to receive the pill and hid it inside a box underneath his pillow.

One day, while Hou Yi was away from the palace, Chang O accidentally found the pill in the box, and wondered what it was. She swallowed the pill purposely. When Hou Yi discovered what his wife had done he flew into a rage. Chang O was frightened by his anger, so she jumped from the chamber’s window to escape, but instead of falling to the ground, she found that she was actually flying up into the sky!

She flew higher and higher, and angry Hou Yi tried to shoot her down with his bow and arrow, but it was in vain. Chang O flew higher and farther away from the earth, and soon she had reached the moon.

The Queen mother of heaven heard about what had happened and punished Chang O. She gave her a rabbit as companion, and a wood cutter to cut the tree of immortality on the moon. She was told that when the tree of immortality is cut down, then Chang O will be allowed to go back to earth to continue on her mission of earning merits for the valuable service in order to go back to heaven.

That was long, long time ago, and still the tree of immortality has not been cut down. Every time Chang O makes a cut, the tree heals itself.

Now, whenever there’s a full moon, if we happen to look up into the sky, we can still see the shape of the tree, and the wood cutter, Chang O, who is still there cutting the wood. Chang O has not been able to come back to earth yet to complete her mission.

And this is the story of the legend of the moon goddess and the moon festival told to me by my grandparents.

The moral of this story: it teaches us not to be greedy, and not to take something that doesn’t belong to us. If Hou Yin had not been greedy about finding a pill that could make him live forever, he would never had gotten the pill; and if Chang O had not purposely swallowed the pill that didn’t belong to her, she would not have to be sent to live in the moon for so long.

For every action there is a consequence.






Tsukuyomi


Tsukuyomi (ツクヨミ?, also known as Tsukuyomi-no-kami), is the moon god in Shinto and Japanese mythology. The name Tsukuyomi-no-Mikoto is a combination of the Japanese words for "moon; month" (tsuki) and "to read; to count" (yomu). Another interpretation is that his name is a combination of "moonlit night" (Tsukiyo) and a verb meaning "to look at" (miru). Yet another interpretation is that the kanji for "bow" (弓, yumi) was corrupted with the kanji for "yomi". "Yomi" also may refer to the Japanese underworld, though this interpretation is unlikely.
Tsukuyomi-no-Mikoto was the second of the "three noble children" born when Izanagi-no-Mikoto, the god who created the first land, Onogoro-shima, was cleansing himself of his sins while bathing himself after escaping the underworld and the clutches of his enraged dead wife, Izanami-no-Mikoto. Tsukuyomi-no-Mikoto was born when he washed out of Izanagi-no-Mikoto's right eye. However, in an alternate story, Tsukuyomi-no-Mikoto was born from a mirror made of white copper in Izanagi-no-Mikoto's right hand.

After climbing a celestial ladder, Tsukuyomi-no-Mikoto lived in the heavens, also known as Takamagahara, with his sister Amaterasu Omikami, the sun goddess.
Tsukuyomi-no-Mikoto angered Amaterasu Omikami when he killed Uke Mochi, the goddess of food. Amaterasu Omikami once sent Tsukuyomi-no-Mikoto to represent her at a feast presented by Uke Mochi. The goddess made the food by turning to the ocean and spitting out a fish, then facing the forest and game came out of her mouth, and finally turned to a rice paddy and coughed up a bowl of rice. Tsukuyomi-no-Mikoto was utterly disgusted by the fact that, although it looked exquisite, the meal was made in a disgusting manner, and so he killed her.

Soon, Amaterasu Omikami learned what happened and she was so angry that she refused to ever look at Tsukuyomi-no-Mikoto again, forever moving to another part of the sky. This is the reason that day and night are never together. In later versions of this myth, Uke Mochi is killed by Susanoo-no-Mikoto.






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